Stemma della Doria Pamphilj family
(click per ingrandire)
Giovanni Battista (Innocenzo X)
Orsini di Gravina
In 1763, Clement XIII Rezzonico granted
to prince Giovanni Andrea IV Doria (1705-64) the surname, the insignia
and the properties of the Pamphilj, on account of the relationship
acquired by way of the marriage between Giovanni Andrea III Doria
(1653- 1737) and Anna Pamphilj (1671). Thus ended the quarrels between
the Borghese, Colonna and Doria families for the succession to Girolamo
Pamphilj, who died in 1760 without male heirs.
The obligation to reside within the Pontifical state, imposed on
the holders of huge estates in the territory, compelled the Doria
to leave Genova and take up definitive residence in Rome. From about
1767, Andrea IV Doria Pamphilj (1747-1820) established himself with
his wife, Leopoldina di Savoia Carignano, in the palace on the Corso,
where the heirs still live today.
The Doria in Genova were outstanding figures in historical events
central to the physiognomy of the Italian peninsula, as were the
Pamphilj in Rome.
The fortunes of the Pamphilj, who originally came from Gubbio,
are linked to Pope Innocent X (1644-55), born as Giovan Battista
Pamphilj. The wealth of his sister-in-law, Olimpia Maidalchini (1591-1657),
allowed him to undertake a brilliant ecclesiastical career, which
carried him to the pontificate in 1644. Innocent X, following the
nepotistic tradition of Renaissance pontiffs, appointed as Cardinal
Nephew Camillo (1622-1666), eldest child of his brother, Pamphilio,
and of the rich sister-in-law (1644).
After only three years of being cardinal, Camillo left the purple
in order to marry Olimpia Aldobrandini (1647), widow of Paolo Borghese,
and sole heiress of the Aldobrandini. She brought as dowry the collection
of paintings, which included those masterpieces removed from the
“Camerino d’Alabastro” of the dukedom of Ferrara,
the villas of Montemagnanapoli and Frascati, the great estates in
Romagna and the palace in the Corso.
Outside public life, Camillo cultivated his passion for art, of
which he was a collector and patron. He was responsible for the
Villa Pamphilj, some works in Piazza Navona (church and college),
the church of S. Nicola da Tolentino, the chapel of S. Tommaso da
Villanova in the church of S. Agostino, S. Andrea al Quirinale,
the palace at Valmontone, and so on. This prince played an important
role in seventeenth-century Rome, which was discovering the taste
for antiquity, leading to excavations (although the heyday was to
come later), and to restorations which brought him into contact
with artists such as Alessandro Algardi, the official portraitist
of the Pamphilj family.
Of the five children born to Camillo and Olimpia Aldobrandini,
the eldest, Giovan Battista (born 1648) died in 1709, leaving his
wife, Violante Facchinetti, to whom is due the entry of some Bolognese
pictures into the collection, such as Susannah and the Elders of
Annibale Carracci. His brother, Benedetto (1653 -1739), was cardinal
and friend of musicians such as Handel and Corelli, and cultivated
a passion for genre painting, landscapes and still lifes, in harmony
with the taste of the time.
Andrea I Doria (1466-1560) was the artificer of an international
trading policy, which allowed him to sail under the protection of
the Spanish crown. In 1528 he had signed an agreement with Charles
V, putting at his disposal his fleet of armed galleys in the Mediterranean,
in return for permits to sail and money (asientos).
As imperial lieutenant, Andrea managed to render himself autonomous
from the Genoese republic, over which he exercised a growing political
pressure, thanks also to the added appointment as General of the
Imperial Maritime Army (26 August 1528). As mediator for the concession
of asientos de dineros to the Genoese merchants, he succeeded in
intervening in the economic destiny of Genoa. The symbol of the
power which Andrea exercised over the city was his residence at
Fassolo, where he received the Spanish ambassadors, in evident competition
with the public administration of the city.
From Charles V Andrea Doria obtained the prestigious honour of
the Toson d’oro (a knightly order instituted in 1431 by Philip
the Good, duke of Burgundy) and the title of Prince of Melfi (1531),
which had belonged
to Giovanni Caracciolo, fallen into disgrace with the emperor to
the extent of having his estates requisitioned.
The alliance between Andrea and Spain was much tried by the corsair
Ariadeno Barbarossa, who, at the head of the Turkish forces, checked
the imperial forces from 1538 until 1560. During these years, the
favourite nephew of Andrea, Giannettino, distinguished himself for
his enterprise in fighting, succeeding in capturing the corsair
Dragut and bringing back to safety the troops of Charles V after
the débâcle of Algiers (1540).
The Muslims bargained the surrender in return for Dragut, agreeing
not to sack Genoa. In this uncertain climate there was the opportunity
for the Fieschi conspiracy against the Doria, in which Giannettino
lost his life. The failure of the enterprise cost the Fieschi their
imperial feudal lands, which were divided up between the Doria and
Andrea was succeeded at his death by Giovanni Andrea I (1540-1606),
son of Giannettino, who inherited the appointment of lieutenant
of the Mediterranean. From this moment Doria policy became more
international, because the new admiral aspired to become counsellor
to the Spanish crown.
In 1571 Giannandrea led the “right horn” of the Christian
fleet opposing the Turks at the battle of Lepanto, and in 1583 entered
Spanish politics in the role of sea general, that is to say adviser
on military and diplomatic strategy. In 1594 he was nominated by
Philip II as member of the Council of State at Madrid, an appointment
reconfirmed by Philip III in 1599, with an increase in annual pay
of 40,000 scudi. In 1602 he inherited the marquisate of Finale,
and in 1604, two years before his death, he was given by Spain the
task of sorting out the disorders resulting from the assassination
of Ercole Grimaldi.
The younger brothers of Andrea IV Doria Pamphilj, Antonio (1749-1821)
and Giuseppe (1751-1816) had successful careers in the church. Both
were cardinals, being respectively Master of the Chamber and Secretary
of State to Pius VI, standing by the pope during the Jacobin troubles
Andrea IV’s son, Luigi Giovanni Andrea V (1779-1829) married
in 1808 Teresa Orsini di Gravina, a noblewomen with a penchant for
good works, who founded the church institution of the Suore Ospedaliere
and of the Dame Lauretane, active in the recovery of prostitutes
and assisting pilgrims.
The eldest son of Teresa Orsini, Filippo Andrea V Doria Pamphilj
(1813-1876) was vice-mayor of Rome after Unification in 1870, foreshadowing
the position of Filippo Andrea VI (1886 - 1958), who was mayor of
the capital in 1944, immediately after the Liberation.
Through the marriage of Giovanni Andrea II Doria (1607-1640) and
Maria Polissena Landi, princess of Valditaro (1608-1679) and last
heiress to a family related to the Svevi, the Genoese princes acquired
the patrimony, name and insignia of the Landi, still present in
the coat of arms of the family today.