The Gallery in Rome holds a large number of seventeenth-century masterpieces (works by Caravaggio, Annibale Carracci, Guido Reni, Guercino, Jan Bruegel, Jusepe Ribera, Velázquez, Claude Lorrain, Gaspard Dughet), and important Renaissance pieces (Titian, Raphael, Garofalo, Lorenzo Lotto, Pieter Bruegel, Correggio, Parmigianino).

In addition to the pictures, there are also the marble busts (several executed by Alessandro Algardi and Gian Lorenzo Bernini), and a large corpus of antique sculptures, from archaic times to the Hellenistic period.